This is a follow on from my post on Web API and the Entity Framework. In that post, I showed a couple of approaches to dealing with JSON serialization problems in the Visual Studio 11 beta. Now I want to look at returning IQueryable from Web API methods.
IQueryable allows you to do what it says on the box: return an object that can be queried from the client. In other words, you can pass through arguments that tell the server what data to retrieve. This is a hot topic on the Web, with some people strongly against the idea and some strongly for it. The argument is between convenience (look how easy it is to get any data I want!) and security/architecture (look how easy it is for someone else to get any data they want).
I don’t have strong views either way. I share the concerns of those who worry about leaving client layers free to bombard the data layer with inappropriate (and potentially dangerous) queries, but I also like the convenience of being able to shape my queries from the client—especially given the Web API’s (partial) support of the oData specification. (For those unfamiliar with oData, it allows you to use querystring arguments to modify the query at the server, e.g., $top=10 will become .Take(10) in the EF query).
If I don’t use IQuerable, I will need to write lots of different methods to allow for different queries (e.g., in cocktails-r-us, I need to search for cocktails by beverage, non-liquid ingredient, name, id, etc.). Here is a simple example from my demo project, with two methods: one returning an IEnumerable of BeverageTypes, the other a single BeverageType by id:
If I want to get an individual BeverageType, I make a get request along these lines: http://[mysite]/api/beveragetype/2. Here is the Firebug output from such a request:
If I switch to IQueryable as the return type, however, I can supply both queries from a single method (note the addition of ‘AsQuerable()’ at the end of the method return):
Now I can write my oData query as “http://[MySite]/api/beveragetype?$filter=id eq 2“, so I no longer need my separate specialized method.
Let’s try and simplify the method. The oData specification allows us to expand associations using $expand, so let’s remove the .Include(“Beverages”) call from our method and pass that through on the querystring as follows: http://[MySite]/api/beveragetype?$filter=id eq 2&$expand=Beverages.
Here is the new code:
And here is the result… not quite what we were hoping for:
It turns out that the Web API does not support $expand…. And I rather hope it never does. If Web API supported $expand, then my users would be able to create huge queries with far too many joins. In cocktails-r-us, I only want to return all the details of a cocktail (ingredients, comments, ratings, related cocktails, etc.) for one cocktail at a time. I don’t want users to be able to join all those tables in one massive query. So, that’s the upside. The downside is that I have to go back to using multiple methods, but even then I should only need two: one to get a specific cocktail (or, in this case, BeverageType) by ID, the other to return lists of them by whatever criteria the client prefers.
Since I can deal with security concerns by forcing my clients to authenticate (and only giving access to trusted developers in the first place), and that leaves me with only one concern: will my client developers write ill-advised queries? They might, for example return too many rows at once instead of paginating through the data as I would prefer. Fortunately, there is a solution: the [ResultLimit(n)] attribute. This restricts the number of items returned. So now our remote users will have to page through the data rather than return it all at once.
If we examine the output in Firefox/Firebug, you can see that only 5 rows are returned even though the query requested all the rows:
ResultLimit is not a perfect solution. It only restricts the number of items returned from the method, not the number retrieved from the database. Here is what’s happening on the server:
However, since the remote user won’t be able to get the data they want the easy way, they will be forced to write oData pagination queries like “http://[site]/api/beveragetype?$skip=5&$top=5&$orderby=Type desc” which would give them the following output on the client:
I understand why people are nervous about exposing IQueryable, and I wouldn’t do it in a completely open way where anyone’s code can access my data without authentication, but I love its openness and flexibility and the way it works so easily with Web API.
For related information, check out this course from Learning Tree: Building Web Applications with ASP.NET MVC.