Creating Testable Applications with a JavaScript MVC Framework

I love test driven development because, assuming that I’m going to test my code at all, the TDD frameworks make testing much easier and faster—much faster than running the whole application in order to test a few lines of code, for instance. The problem is that my usual JavaScript + jQuery coding practices defeat TDD.

My usual practice is to present users with a page where, for instance, they can select a customer from a dropdown list in order to see the information on that customer. In my JavaScript code, I use the customer Id from the dropdown list to access a service that returns the appropriate JSON object. I then start moving that data to the page using jQuery to select the elements that I want to update with data from the JSON object. And this is where the wheels fall off, at least as far as TDD goes: I can’t claim that I’ve tested my code unless I’ve tested the jQuery code and I can’t test my jQuery code without providing the page with the elements that my jQuery code is updating.

But this is exactly the problem that the Model-View-Controller design pattern is intended to solve: Have all the code/logic in the controller where it can be tested with TDD; have a separate View that is too simple to have much wrong with it and, as a result, doesn’t require testing. What I want, then, is an MVC framework that lets me put all my JavaScript code in a Controller that doesn’t need a View to be tested. Then, in my View, I want to integrate with my controller in a declarative “code-free/logic-free” way that doesn’t require testing. Oh, sure, in my View I can still have what I call “blunders” (e.g. misspelled text; the right data in the wrong place) but I can’t have logic errors that require debugging.

There are several frameworks that will do that. Lately, I’ve been using one of them—Knockout—on a project for one of my clients. Knockout implements the MVVM pattern which includes a ViewModel object that wraps up both the code and the data that drives your View creating, in the ViewModel, a very testable object. Knockout also provides declarative databinding to elements in my page to move data to my elements without code. In addition to Knockout’s basic functionality there’s lots to like about Knockout. For instance, it’s very easy to implement: download the Knockout library from, add it to your Scripts folder, and add a script reference to your page. Knockout also relatively agnostic about how you retrieve your data, making it easy to integrate with either WCF or ASP.NET MVC. I’m going to do this in easy stages, starting with this post that sets up my server-side resources.

Setting Up the Server

As an example, I’m going to walk through creating a page with Knockout using ASP.NET MVC. Since, with TDD, I begin with my tests, I first a controller called Test to my application, with an action method to support displaying a View that will let me test my client-side Customer ViewModel:

public class TestController : Controller {
 public ActionResult CustomerViewModel() {
 return View();

My client-side Customer ViewModel is going to need to retrieve Customer objects from my server. Since I’m working in ASP.NET MVC, I’ll add an action method to my controller to support that. However, I’ll just return some mocked up objects for testing purposes. This ensures that, when I’m testing my Customer ViewModel, I really am only testing my Customer ViewModel and not my server-side code or database connection. That mock method looks like this:

public ActionResult CustomerById(string id) { 
 Customer cust = Customer.CreateCustomer(id, "PHVIS", null);
 cust.City = "Regina"; 
 return this.Json(cust, JsonRequestBehavior.AllowGet);

Learning Tree has several excellent courses in this area. I get to teach both Learning Tree’s ASP.NET MVC course and its Design Patterns and Best Practices course. But Learning Tree also offers courses on JavaScript and jQuery.

Peter Vogel

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